Did you know that - according to an important study - learning the top 2,000 most frequently used words will enable you to understand up to 84 percent of all non-fiction and 86.1 percent of fiction literature and 92.7 percent of oral speech Those are amazing stats, and this audiobook will take you even further than those numbers!
Learning the first thousand (1000) most frequently used words of a language will allow you to understand 76.0% of all non-fiction writing, 79.6% of all fiction writing and an astounding 87.8% of all oral speech.
This chapter reviews the quantitative corpus linguistic literature on vocabulary development in first- and second-language writing. It first provides a theoretical and methodological context for such work by discussing the construct of vocabulary proficiency. It then critically reviews an extensive body of literature to establish what substantive conclusions can be drawn and what might constitute productive foci for future research. The strongest developmental patterns are found for measures of vocabulary diversity and use of academic vocabulary. There are also important, but complex, developmental patterns with regard to use of high- versus low-frequency words. However, the current range of measures attested in the literature has significant limitations: they are limited in scope, focusing almost exclusively on breadth, rather than depth, of vocabulary knowledge; relationships between measures and knowledge constructs is often unclear; the relationships between measures themselves, which often overlap with each other in complex ways, are largely unexamined; measures are often too coarse-grained, and may consequently disguise important developmental patterns by conflating distinct constructs.
As regards the developments in the context of the first pillar of the monetary policy strategy of the ECB, no new monetary data have become available since our decision taken on 31 August 2000 to raise the main ECB interest rates. After having increased at a very strong pace in the first quarter of 2000, M3 growth has been showing some signs of moderation over recent months. This moderation has mainly been a consequence of lower growth in the most liquid components of M3, which bear little or no remuneration, indicating that the monetary policy measures taken since November 1999 are gradually feeding their way through. At the same time, the average of annual M3 growth rates for the period from May to July 2000, at 5.5%, continued to deviate on the upside from the reference value of 4 1/2%. The pronounced expansion of credit to the private sector up to July also suggested that households and firms continued to regard financing conditions in the euro area as favourable. In the context of the robust expansion of economic activity, continued ample liquidity conditions would constitute a risk to price stability.
Duisenberg:Last question first: of course there is co-ordination. Second question in the middle: you have to be aware that many central banks - may I say, in this particular case, including the Deutsche Bundesbank - are in the habit of regularly selling, and have already sold, their net accruals of foreign reserves stemming from their investments in US dollars or yen. This is common practice, almost daily practice. It is the first time for the ECB, but it is certainly not the first time for a central bank. In effect, I have had many questions from you touching upon rumours in the market to the effect that there have been interventions. Is it true or not I have always said: no. However, commercial transactions have, of course, been conducted by central banks on a continuous basis, and they are among those transactions conducted in the past. Now the first question, the most important one: does this decision signal that you are not going to sell any more or any less in the future This decision has to be judged entirely in its own right and it says nothing about any future sales or purchases of foreign currency. As I have always said, because it is the main thrust of your question: when there are interventions in the market, I will tell you, not ex ante, but ex post. 59ce067264